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Rations
Research
posted Tue Feb 19 2002
Moses Hazen's Company,
Major Scott's Battalion:
Rations
1758
The following list of Provisions that were allowed for one man, for seven days. This can be found on page 232, Volume I of Knox's Journals and on page 281, Volume II of Knox's Journals. This are also referred to as Ships Provisions:
  • Seven pounds of bread or flour
  • Four pounds of pork
  • Three pints of Pease
  • Six ounces of butter
  • Half a pint of rice
    "At all times, if the regiments chuse to have rice in lieu of pease, they may receive a pound and a half of rice, in lieu of three pints of pease, which, with the half pound allowed as per contract, makes two pounds of rice per week for each man." On page 48 Vol. I, we find that the meat ration was also seven pounds of beef in lieu of pork. It also mentions on page 48 and throughout both volumes of Knox's the use of biscuit bread or ships bread instead of fresh baked or flour.

    1759
    The following list of Provisions that were allowed for one man, for seven days. This can be found on page 282 of volume II of Knox's Journal:
  • Seven pounds of bread or flour
  • Two pounds of pork
  • two ditto of beef
  • One pint and a half of pease
  • Two pints of oatmeal
  • Half a pound of butter, or one pound of cheese in lieu
  • Half a pint of oil
  • One pound and an half of flour
  • Half a pound of suet or fruit, besides the gil of rum each day free gratis.

    On page 48 Vol. I, we find the listing for how many rations an individual may draw for his position:
  • Major - 4 Rations per Day
  • Captain - 3 Rations per Day
  • Lieutenant - 2 Rations per Day
  • Ensign - 2 Rations per Day
  • Chaplain - 2 Rations per Day
  • Adjutant - 2 Rations per Day
  • Quarter Master - 2 Rations per Day
  • Surgeon - 2 Rations per Day
  • Mate - 1 Ration per Day
  • Serjeant - 1 Ration per Day
  • Corporal - 1 Ration per Day
  • Private - 1 Ration per Day
  • Drummer - 1 Ration per Day
  • Clerk 1 Ration per Day

    On page 227, 355,Vol. I, We also find that there were 4 women per company of 100 men that were allowed rations. For a company of 70 men or less they were allowed 3 women for rations. We find in Volume II page 348 that 6 women were given four full rations per day. The meat rations were issued either as fresh or ration meat, which is stored in barrels of salt brine. The barrels of salt beef or pork were to consist of 28 pieces of meat for a total weight of 112 pounds. On salt pork, the head and feet were included, but were reserved for the hospital. The Gammons (Hams), Fliches (Sides) and Back are not included, those being saved for curing into bacon. The fresh meat was supplied by Black cattle, Fish, Seafood, Hogs and Sheep that were either brought with the Army or obtained. Eels were preferred by the officers as a luxury. Sometimes Horses, Cats, Dogs and Rodents were utilized when all else failed.

    The butter rations if not fresh, are packed in barrels. The butter is rolled into 50 pound round logs. These logs are rolled in salt and then wrapped in a salt impregnated cloth. More than one log is placed in each barrel and then salt pickle is poured over them. The barrel is then sealed for shipment.

    Recipes

    Boiled Beef - soak the meat in a mixture of cider vinegar and water. Boil the meat in this mixture prior to leaving (it last about 3 days) for your outing. Boil till it is done, if a small roast, use a meat thermometer to make sure it's cooked through. This will preserve the meat from spoilage and vinegar adds a tastety zing. Fry or roast the meat over the fire. Wrap the meat in a rag and put in your haversack. You can add cloves or pepper to the mix for extra flavor when boiling. (from Dave Schmid)

    Ships Bread - This makes about 4, 6 inch diameter 1/4 inch thick cakes per pound. Take whole-wheat flour; mix it with a cup of heated honey. Add water, a bit at a time, until thick and well mixed. Kneed it like you would if making bread. Pound it out very well. Roll it flat and then use a bowl rim to cut out the disks. Place them on an ungreased cookie sheet. Poke holes in the disks. Place them in the oven at 350 degrees until golden brown. Let them cool and dry for several days. DO NOT PUT THEM IN AN AIR TIGHT CONTAINER, THEY WILL MOLD. Make sure they are dry. Boil in a stew or salted water till its soft like bread pudding. Add raisens to the mix if you like. Knox's Journal mentions soaking in water and toast near the fire. (from Dave Schmid)

    For the other rations you can obtain dried peas either green and sometimes yellow. Use stone ground oats for the oat meal, not the razor cut. For cheese you can use Farmers cheese, it resembles the cheese that was used. For salted meats you can use salt cure, which can be found in most grocery stores. It comes with a recipe and can be done in the refrigerator. The rice can be obtained as brown (un-polished) long grain rice.

    The following measurements are from the period:

  • 1 Firkin = 8 gal. Oak cask
  • 4 Firkins = 1 Barrel
  • 1 Barrel = 31 1/2 gals.
  • 2 Barrels = 1 Hogshead
  • 1 Hogshead = 63 gals.
  • Compiled By Brian Wilson

    Special thanks to Barton Redmon, formerly with Gordon's Company of the 60th R.A.R. and now with the 55th of Foot. He has done several articles on Rations and foods. He is responsible for most of the material you've read.

    The recipes are courtesy of Dave Schmid.




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